Toile de Jouy embroidery in cross stitch 2/2

Toile de Jouy embroidery in cross stitch 2/2

- Categories : Museums and Heritage

Toile de Jouy embroidery in cross stitch - Second part

Second part of the discovery of Toile de Jouy cross stitch pattern chart.
To read the first part: Toile de Jouy embroidery first part .

What is Toile de Jouy?

Toile de Jouy means very simply, cloth from Jouy. It rapidly became a generic for all fabrics printed in a single colour, with predominantly pastoral themed motifs. This, in spite of the fact that these prints were also printed in other famous Manufactories, in Nantes, Alsace, Aquitaine and even England.

Toile de Jouy fabrics with characters

The expression “Toile de Jouy” has unfortunately become practically a generic for fabrics with monochrome figures intended for upholstery. But if we take into account all the fabrics made at Jouy, the heritage it represents is infinitely richer. The number of floral and geometric motifs created at Jouy is estimated at over 30,000!
Whereas the number of character prints are roughly 200.
Toile à personnage les Travaux de la Manufacture
The Trades of the Manufactory cloth. It describes in an organised 
disorder the different stages of printing the Toile de Jouy fabrics. 
This unfamiliarity of the diversity of fabrics printed at the mill can be partly explained by the fact that the smaller motifs were more intended for clothing, so doomed to wear and tear and their disappearance, whereas the upholstery fabrics had a longer life expectancy. It must also be noted that Jouy was not the only place to print character fabrics, even if they are by far the most well-known. These popular prints were also made in Alsace, Nantes, Angers, Normandy, Marseille and Provence – as well as in Great Britain and Italy.

All fabrics printed by the Oberkampf Manufacture in Jouy

Mignonnettes, fabrics for clothing

Among the production at the Oberkampf Manufactory can be found the “mignonettes”. These small prints intended for clothing came in infinite variations. Simple geometric forms and floral clusters, the fashion for these prints did not evolve much and the same motifs were used year after year with different colours. There are many different styles of mignonettes, including pinstripes and also a number of checkered patterns. There are also a lot of vermiculated fabrics with small winding ridges.
Les tissus mignonnettes imprimés à Jouy
Lettre de commande manufacture de Jouy
The Jouy Manufactory was also specialised in “braids”, motifs imitating the braiding of straw, intended for making covers for cushions or sofas, especially for winter gardens which were very popular at the time. The braids were at first printed in natural colours to imitate straw, before being declined in a multitude of other tones. Polka dot backgrounds were also a popular print and could be found not only on clothing fabric, but also as a base for many floral upholstery textiles.

The Bonnes Herbes floral fabrics

Inspired by botany or more stylized flowers, the Bonnes Herbes (botanical plants) fabrics were a lasting success at the manufacture. They were printed on a base called ramoneur (chimney sweep) on account of their dark tones - black, brown or bronze. These motifs of flowers and dense foliage were not, as is often thought, an exclusivity of the Provence region.  The manufactory archives contain traces of numerous shipments for, among others, the Beaucaire market, an important trade centre in the Provence region.
Tissu dit bonnes herbes imprimé à la manufacture
Tissu bonnes herbes imprimé à Jouy

The Indienne fabrics from the Oberkampf Manufactory

During the 18th century, “indiennes” referred to printed cotton fabrics. Sometimes referred to as “Persian prints”, this shows the interest in all things oriental, following the success of the various Indian trading companies.
Whether the motifs were directly inspired by prints coming from India, or designed at the Oberkampf Manufactory, indiennes could be printed in monochrome or multicolour. They were one of the biggest successes at Jouy and a quick delve into their archives reveals hundreds of models. The influence of nature was omnipresent in these prints, representing all types of flowers and exotic plants in a realistic imitation. Lilac, holly, meadow flowers, grapes, wheat ears, carnations and oak leaves could be found on all fabrics, for clothes or upholstery. Of all the fabric prints for clothes, the most popular was the rose, in all its splendour. Parallel to this naturalism developed a taste for more stylised floral motifs. Birds, feathers, arabesque twigs, sophisticated curves and garlands – the creativity of the designers at Oberkampf knew no limits. They were dedicated followers of fashion and had to remain inventive and offer new products.
Tissu indienne imprimé à Jouy
Indienne sur fond jaune imprimée à Jouy
We invite you to read the article dedicated to indiennes and discover the sage of this fabrics from India, before they were produced in France and before the creation of the Oberkampf Manufactory.
See also all the details manufacturing of these fabrics by Indian artisans, before European manufacturers took over their production.
See all the Toile de Jouy clothes and indienne fabric kits and pattern charts in the Museum and Heritage Collection.
Discover our collection of products on Toile de Jouy theme.

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